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Policy Measures, Practices and Challenges of Waste-to-Energy: Perspectives from Nigeria and Nepal

A. Khanal1,2,*, S. Giri2, O. J. Oyebode3, J. E. Omijeh4, and A. Khanal5

  1. Department of Sustainable Engineering, Teri School of Advanced Studies, New Delhi 110070, India
  2. Global Research Institute and Training Center (GRIT), Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
  3. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti MD 20770, Nigeria
  4. Department of Forestry & Wildlife Management, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola P.M.B. 2076, Nigeria
  5. Department of Civil Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 46000, Nepal

*Corresponding author. Tel.: 977-9841075897. E-mail address: (A. Khanal).


There are environmental and health concerns associated with some waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies, such as incineration, which emit pollutants that can harm the environment and public health. Furthermore, there is limited research on the sustainability and feasibility of WtE. This study provides a comparative analysis of waste management practices in Nigeria and Nepal and highlights the challenges and potential for implementing WtE plants. A comprehensive literature review was conducted, and data were gathered from online sources for analysis. The findings of this study suggest that both countries face significant challenges in managing solid waste, including inadequate infrastructure, lack of awareness among policymakers, and limited resources for managing waste. However, there is potential for implementing WtE technologies as a sustainable solution for managing solid waste in these regions. The challenges associateed with WtE technology, including the high capital cost of establishing facilities and environmental and health concerns, must be addressed to fully realize the benefits of this technology.

Keywords: Nepal, Nigeria, solid waste, waste-to-energy, waste recovery

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